Funds transferred to SSBG must be spent on programs and services for children or families with incomes below percent of the poverty line. Table 2 provides detailed estimates of job gains due to the growth in exports, job losses due to changes in imports, and the trade balance for each state.
As the trade deficit limits jobs in the manufacturing sector, the new supply of workers to the service sector from displaced workers plus young workers not able to find manufacturing jobs depresses the wages of those already holding service jobs.
States sharply reduced the cash assistance safety net when the economy was strong, and then failed to reinvest in those areas when the economy weakened and need increased.
To meet its MOE obligation, a state must report spending at least 80 percent of this historical spending level; this minimum share falls to 75 percent for any year in which a state meets its TANF work participation rate requirement.
In Canada, a decade of heightened competition with the United States is eroding social investment in public spending on education, health care, unemployment compensation, and a wide range of other public services.
But over time, states redirected a substantial portion of their state and federal TANF funds to other purposes, to fill state budget holes, and in some cases to substitute for existing state spending.
Similarly, because few states have implemented innovative employment strategies for families with substantial personal and family challenges, we still have very limited knowledge about how to significantly improve their employment outcomes.
Block grants can weaken accountability and oversight, leading states to spend significant federal funds in ways that Congress did not intend.
That is not what happened. Of the 20 million women in need of publicly funded services inapproximately 4. We also analyze premium data to identify where United currently offers one of the two lowest-cost silver plans.
Both men and women see inequalities in the workplace: This approach solves four problems that are prevalent in previous research on the employment impacts of trade.
More trade means higher incomes for American workers. However, because only domestically produced exports generate jobs in the United States, our trade calculations are based only on domestic exports.
Background The TANF block grant fundamentally altered both the structure and the allowable uses of federal and state dollars previously spent on AFDC and related programs. Transferred funds are subject to the rules of the program to which they are transferred, not to TANF rules.
Block-grant proponents often argue that states are better than the federal government at determining how to help families in need. But other factors that are difficult to measure, including gender discrimination, may contribute to the ongoing wage discrepancy.
These are effectively the same tactics that led to the bankruptcies of Enron, WorldCom, and several other major corporations. Under TANF, states generally bear the financial burden of meeting increased need for cash assistance when the economy slows or the low-income population grows for other reasons, but many states have not been willing to shoulder that burden.
Even when need increased during the Great Recession, states were often unable to bring the funds back to core welfare reform services and instead made cuts in basic assistance, child care, and work programs.
Even though women have increased their presence in higher-paying jobs traditionally dominated by men, such as professional and managerial positions, women as a whole continue to be overrepresented in lower-paying occupations.
An analysis of expansion waiver programs in Michigan and Indiana showed that both states experienced uninsured rate reductions between and that were higher than the average decrease among expansion states as well as large gains in Medicaid enrollment. Some studies look only at the effects of exports and ignore imports.
However, both concepts are measures of net trade flows. At the same time, both the federal and state TANF funds could be used much more broadly and could include many programs or services that previously were or would have been funded by state dollars, outside of AFDC.
Trade Deficit Review Commissionpp. All Kansas and Oklahoma exchange enrollees currently have two insurers from which to choose, but would be left with one insurer if United were to exit from the state and not be replaced by a new entrant.
Research comparing Arkansas which expanded through a premium assistance model and Kentucky which expanded through a traditional, non-waiver model showed no significant differences in uninsured rate declines between and in the two states. Based on this estimate, it would take an extra 47 days of work for women to earn what men did in Fewer men said the same.
Figure 4 Box 2: MOE spending, however, must be an actual expenditure, not simply forgone revenue; thus, a state can count the refundable portion of a state EITC as MOE but not the portion that simply reduces the amount of income tax owed to the state. In fact, most U. For example, compare New Jersey with Louisiana.
Because the United States tends to import goods that make intensive use of skills of less-educated workers in production, it is not surprising to find that the increasing openness of the U.
LITTLE FAMILY HISTORY The LITTLE FAMILY HISTORY portion was built upon the record found in HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD OF Thomas Little came to the United States inmaking the voyage from Liverpool to New Orleans on the sailing vessel David Cannon; they were many weeks in crossing, finally arriving on.
Taking a relatively cautious approach early on, the company offered plans in just 4 states inbut quickly expanded to 23 states in and again expanded to a total of 34 states in An analysis of expansion waiver programs in Michigan and Indiana showed that both states experienced uninsured rate reductions between and that were higher than the average decrease.
The economic health of cities and communities depends on the financial health and stability of their residents. The key: nonretirement savings. Families with a savings cushion as little as $ to $ are less likely to be evicted, miss a housing or utility payment, or receive public benefits after a job loss, health issue, or large income drop.
The gender gap in pay has narrowed sincebut it has remained relatively stable over the past 15 years or so. Inwomen earned 82% of what men earned, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of median hourly earnings of both full- and part-time workers in the United States.
Family First - Summary & Analysis Topics States can receive federal reimbursement for up to 50% of their expenditures to provide kinship navigator programs that meet certain evidence-based requirements. This federal support is available regardless of whether the children for whom the services are being accessed meet certain income.An analysis of the little family in the states